Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe
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Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe

Mike Wright, Bart Clarysse, Philippe Mustar and Andy Lockett

This book advances our understanding of university spin-off creation and development in environments outside the high-tech clusters of the US. While there has been substantial university spin-off activity internationally in recent years, a number of major aspects are little understood. The authors argue that the nature of universities is changing as reduced public funding reflects a public debate on their role in society. An important aspect of this international phenomenon is an increased emphasis on the commercialization of university research and on academic entrepreneurship. These new ventures therefore involve the spinning-off of technology and knowledge generated by universities.
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Chapter 2: Public Policies to Foster Academic Spin-Offs

Mike Wright, Bart Clarysse, Philippe Mustar and Andy Lockett


2. Public policies to foster academic spin-offs 2.1 INTRODUCTION For the past 15 years or so, academic research spin-offs have received increasing attention by government authorities in the leading scientifically developed countries. The capacity of prestigious US universities to generate new companies from Genentech to Google has highlighted the strategic role of public-sector research, not only in the generation of new knowledge and technology but also in the creation and development of high-growth technological firms. Spin-offs from universities and publicsector research institutes have become a key issue in government research and innovation policy in many countries. Although the creation of academic spin offs is nothing new, what is original is the extent of the phenomenon and the fact that public policies have being introduced to encourage the commercial exploitation of public-sector research results through new businesses. The genesis of this public policy, which is directly orientated towards the stimulation of spin-offs, can be found in the broader technology policy actions that were developed in the early 1980s in most European countries, following the single European Treaty at the EU level. This treaty launched the first framework programme through which the public finance of R&D was organized (European Report on Science and Technology Indicators, 1994). The general idea was that European companies should catch up in terms of R&D with their US equivalents. It was stipulated that especially the so-called new or emerging technologies needed some public support, so action programmes in biotechnology...

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