Chapter 8: Conclusions and Policy Implications
INTRODUCTION The purpose of this concluding chapter is threefold. First, we summarize the main ﬁndings as presented in each of the chapters, covering the diﬀerent levels at which the spin-oﬀs can be examined. Second, we discuss the implications of the ﬁndings from each chapter for the diﬀerent actors that deal with spin-oﬀs. These actors include the policy-makers, the individuals involved in the process of spin-oﬀ formation and the technology transfer oﬃce. We demonstrate the importance of multi-level change in an innovation system if spin-oﬀs are to become a central feature of wealth creation in European economies. Third, we develop an agenda for future research. This chapter is structured as follows. First, we give an overview of the main chapters and discuss the implications of the ﬁndings in each of the chapters for the relevant stakeholders. Second, we develop future areas for research. Finally, we conclude the chapter with the main highlights. 8.2 CONCLUSIONS AND MAIN FINDINGS In this section we summarize the conclusions and main ﬁndings on a chapter by chapter basis. Chapter 2: Various Policy Mechanisms Have Been Developed to Bridge the So-called Knowledge and Financial Gap. However, Their Eﬃciency and Eﬀectiveness Need Further Evaluation Our review in Chapter 2 showed that European countries have developed various framework conditions to facilitate the process of start-up creation in general. These countries’ experiences have shown that neither these frameworks, nor money alone (VC funds) were enough to create a dynamic spin-oﬀ sector. It...
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