Lessons and Policy Implications for the Lisbon Strategy
Edited by Susanne Mundschenk, Michael H. Stierle, Ulrike Stierle-von Schütz and Iulia Traistaru-Siedschlag
Chapter 3: Elements and Determinants of Economic Growth – Lessons and Policy Implications for the European Knowledge Society and Innovation System
Peter Nijkamp 3.1 CHALLENGES FOR EUROPE The history of European culture has been decisively influenced by a strong science orientation, which has created progress and prosperity. Europe has become one of the leading world regions in terms of innovative capability and there are highly skilled human resources in many European countries. Science-driven research – ranging from fundamental to applied research – has created a wealth of innovations, which have laid the foundation for a modern knowledge-based society that is predominantly characterised by strong international ties. Modern science is increasingly characterised by a strong internationalisation process, as is, for instance, witnessed by a multiplicity of cooperative agreements between research institutions in various countries and by multi-country authorships of scientific publications. The rising cross– border orientation of scientific research prompts various challenging questions: Is Europe able to keep pace with the unprecedented dynamics in scientific development in our globalising world? Are the national and European research (funding) systems sufficiently and effectively addressing the far-reaching challenges of the emerging European knowledge economy? Is the result of national funding mechanisms for science-driven research in Europe comparable to that of competing regions like the USA? Whilst Europe has moved in recent decades to a common market for goods, services, people and capital, the market for scientific research is still mainly nationally oriented. Despite the plethora of advances in the European knowledge-based society, two significant challenges have to be recognised. 47 48 Competitiveness and Growth in Europe In the first place, the demand and user side of R...
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