The Emergence and Survival of High-Technology Ventures in Europe
Edited by Jan Ulijn, Dominique Drillon and Frank Lasch
Chapter 1: The Influence of National Culture on Cooperation Attitudes in High -Technology Start-ups
1. The inﬂuence of national culture on cooperative attitudes in high-technology start-ups Jan Ulijn, Hans T.W. Frankort and Lorraine M. Uhlaner* INTRODUCTION The main focus of this chapter is the concept of cooperation by hightechnology start-ups or HTSUs and in particular, the inﬂuence that culture may have upon attitudes that may predict cooperative behaviour. HTSUs are deﬁned in this chapter as young companies whose aim is to produce technologically innovative products, processes and/or services. These ﬁrms typically generate a high turnover per employee. Adapted from Barnard (1938), furthermore, HTSU cooperation is deﬁned as a functional system of activities between the HTSU and one or more outside parties, with the purpose of improving its performance. Note that although the outside party may also beneﬁt, key to this deﬁnition is the notion that cooperation, at minimum, beneﬁts the HTSU. Finally, although culture is a rather broad term, the focus is primarily upon national culture (NC) and in particular, variables developed in earlier research by Hofstede (2001). According to Hofstede, culture can be treated as ‘the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another’ (ibid.: 9). HTSUs may choose to cooperate for many reasons. For instance, such cooperation may oﬀer the HTSU and its partner complementary resources or skills, alternative markets, or other opportunities to share expertise and problem solving. The sources of such cooperation may involve social networks, that is, personal contacts of the...
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