A European Perspective
- New Horizons in Environmental Economics series
Edited by Ekin Birol and Phoebe Koundouri
Chapter 10: Evaluation of Heterogeneous Preferences for Forest Recreation in the UK Using Choice Experiments
Michael Christie and Nick Hanley INTRODUCTION Outdoor recreation has been a signiﬁcant stimulant for the conception and development of environmental valuation techniques. Clawson’s seminal work to measure the demand and value of outdoor recreation led to the development of the travel cost model (Clawson 1959), while four years later Davis’s doctoral thesis, which utilised questionnaires to estimate the beneﬁts of outdoor recreation in the Maine backwoods area, was instrumental in the development of the contingent valuation method (Davis 1963). More recently, choice experiments, which originated in the ﬁelds of transport and marketing research (Louviere 1988), were ﬁrst applied to environmental resources in 1994 when Adamowicz et al. (1994) used the technique to examine the values for a range of attributes of water-based recreation. Since their conception, much research eﬀort has been undertaken to validate and reﬁne these methods. The result of this eﬀort is that it is now generally recognised that these methods can provide useful information on the value of environmental resources for policy analysis (Arrow et al. 1993; HM Treasury 2003). In this chapter, we aim to demonstrate the use of choice modelling in the context of valuing forest recreation. The majority of existing environmental valuation research on forests has either simply valued forest recreation in a generic sense (Bishop 1992) or forest recreation as a single attribute of wider forests values (Willis et al. 1988; Hanley 1989; Willis and Benson 1989; Hanley and Ruﬀell 1993; Chapter 9 in this volume). However,...
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