Edited by Harry W Richardson, Peter Gordon and James E. Moore II
Chapter 5: Cost-effective Strategies to Address Urban Terrorism: A Risk Management Approach
5. Cost-eﬀective strategies to address urban terrorism: a risk management approach Richard G. Little Following the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, the civilian and military branches of the United States federal government intensiﬁed ongoing eﬀorts to develop comprehensive standards to enhance the physical security of federal buildings and protect those who work in and visit these facilities. These standards apply to essentially all federally occupied space in the United States, whether it is located in buildings owned by the government or in leased commercial space, and require that buildings be able to withstand the eﬀects of an explosion (typically assumed to be delivered as a car or truck bomb) and reduce casualties from building collapse, glass and debris, and other causes. These requirements can be met through a combination of site design features, structural enhancements, window improvements, and increased setbacks from roads and parking areas. At present few, if any, commercial buildings, particularly those in urban locations, conform to these standards, but increasingly, commercial owners are considering the hardening1 of portions of their buildings. According to the US General Services Administration (2005), the federal government leases almost 4 million square feet of space in approximately 400 buildings located in the eight-county area consisting of Kern, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego and Imperial. As these leases become due, building owners will be faced with the prospect of renovating to satisfy the ISC or UFC requirements or risk losing federal tenants. The federal...
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