Macroeconomic Methodology
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Macroeconomic Methodology

A Post-Keynesian Perspective

Jesper Jespersen

Jesper Jespersen presents a treatise on the importance of the choice of methodology within macroeconomics. Given that no scientifically based macroeconomic policy recommendation should be established without an evaluation of the methods employed, this book gives a clear exposition of how proper macroeconomic analysis should be undertaken. Furthermore, it is convincingly argued that one of the lasting contributions of John Maynard Keynes was his emphasis on methodology; that macroeconomic consequences of uncertainty could not be analysed within the established general equilibrium framework. It is due to post-Keynesian economics supported by critical realism that the understanding of Keynes’s methodology has been resurrected, which has eventually resulted in renewed debate on realistic macroeconomic policies to restore full employment without inflation.
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Chapter 4: About Uncertainty, Risk and Limited Knowledge

Jesper Jespersen


[Keynes’s] perception [was] that economies did not behave in the way economists said they did, that something vital had been left out of their accounts, and it was this missing element which explained their malfunctioning. . . . Keynes accused economists of his day of abstracting from the existence of uncertainty [;] . . . human beings take decisions in ignorance of the future. (Skidelsky, 1992: 538–9) INTRODUCTION In this chapter I will explore some of the consequences of the specific assumption related to aggregate behaviour and the formation of expectations at the macro-level. While doing this I will concentrate on the difference between risk and uncertainty.1 This will be done firstly through an analysis of the individual decision-maker’s situation, which can be characterized by a kind of double uncertainty related to both the microand the macro-level. To begin with, the future conditions are uncertain on the individual level (health, income and family situation), which has to be combined with the overall macroeconomic uncertainty related to unemployment, inflation, interest rates, and so on. Individual uncertainties can, due to the ‘law of large numbers’, in varying degrees be transformed to risk, which can be handled through different kinds of insurance policies (private companies or through welfare state institutions). Secondly, there will always be uncertainty associated with the consequences of an individual action for two reasons: we do not know the future and we do not know the outcome of other people’s reactions. The macroeconomy outcome when many actors act even under the condition of identical macroeconomic signals...

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