Cost–benefit Analysis, Planning and Innovation
Edited by Hugo Priemus, Bent Flyvbjerg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 15: Drawing Institutional Lessons Across Countries on Making Transport Infrastructure Policy
W. Martin de Jong 15.1 INTRODUCTION The growth of the global movement of people, goods and data has, in its wake, increased transnational policy dependence and the exchange of knowledge and information among policy-makers and specialists. Both bilateral learning by representatives of one country from another and multilateral learning within transnational expert networks in Europe and elsewhere have made the phenomenon of ‘policy transfer’ or ‘institutional transplantation’ across countries and regions more salient (Dolowitz, 1999; Rose, 1993; 2005; Stone, 2000; 2004; Van Bueren et al., 2002; De Jong et al., 2002; De Jong and Edelenbos, 2007). Policy-makers rate the performance of their own countries in terms of investment levels, congestion levels, modal split and many other indicators against that of their neighbours, and attempt to copy elements from the institutional framework of countries they consider their benchmarks. In the world of transport infrastructure investment the proponents of comprehensive policy analysis may admire the German ‘Standardisierte Bewertung’ (‘standardised appraisal’), which has been in existence there for decades and want to emulate its procedures at home (De Jong and Geerlings, 2005). Those with a strong preference for direct democracy may choose to study the Swiss or Californian practices of consulting individual voters on speciﬁc transport issues through the ballot box. Those reluctant to accept high levels of public spending in public transport are more favourably inclined towards a purely economic approach to investment and look at the practice of involving the private sector which occurs in the UK (Nash and Preston,...
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