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Chapter 9: Corporations as Citizens Against Corruption: An Institutional Entrepreneurship Perspective
9 Corporations as citizens against corruption: an institutional entrepreneurship perspective Gary R. Weaver and Vilmos F. Misangyi1 Introduction The wide-ranging and negative impacts of corruption (Mauro 1996; Kaufmann 1997; Doh et al. 2003) have led many observers and policy makers to regard it as ‘one of the world’s greatest challenges’ (Errath et al. 2005). In addressing corruption, multiple anti-corruption agencies (for example, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the UN, Transparency International (TI), the World Bank) increasingly have directed their attention beyond a conventional focus on governmental anti-corruption programs to consider as well the role of corporations in the mitigation of corruption. For example, in a speech to French business leaders, OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurria recently asserted that the cessation of bribery ‘will only happen if companies put in place their own rules and controls against bribery. You are on the front line. You have to decide whether to give in to solicitation or whether to try to match or beat the bribe that your competitor may be willing to pay’ (Gurria 2006). Meanwhile, the World Bank’s ‘Business, Competitiveness and Development’ program involves the corporate sector actively in ﬁghting corruption; the UN now includes ﬁghting corruption as the 10th principle within its ‘Global Compact’ (UN Global Compact 2007); and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) such as TI focus on the potential role of the corporate sector in alleviating problems of corruption, advocating, for example, ‘eﬀective controls and greater transparency’ in corporate actions (TI 2007). Most parties to international discussions...
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