Edited by Andreas Georg Scherer and Guido Palazzo
Chapter 13: Between Confrontation and Cooperation: Corporate Citizenship and NGOs
Jonathan P. Doh Introduction This book is concerned with the process and impact of corporate citizenship. It seeks to identify and analyze antecedents, actions and outcomes of corporate citizenship behaviors. One important set of institutional actors that have had a substantial inﬂuence on corporate citizenship are civil society and non-governmental organizations (CSOs or NGOs).1 According to Matten and Crane (2005, p. 171), ‘probably the most important transition raising the prospect of corporate involvement in citizenship rights is the failure of nation-states to be the sole guarantor of these (citizenship) rights any longer’. This same reality has resulted in increasing involvement of NGOs in helping to redeﬁne the citizenship obligations of companies, and the mechanisms through which ﬁrms respond to those obligations. In this chapter, two primary mechanisms by which NGOs inﬂuence corporate citizenship are explored. The ﬁrst might be termed NGO ‘activism’ or ‘advocacy’. NGOs have been among the most vocal and inﬂuential critics of the inﬂuence of corporations on society. These criticisms have ranged from broad indictments of the negative inﬂuence of globalization and multinational corporations (MNEs) on the social and environmental fabric of societies, to speciﬁc assertions regarding workplace practices of companies doing business in the developing world. NGOs have thus advocated for changes in corporate behavior and of laws regulating corporations by protesting, boycotting, targeting and otherwise communicating their displeasure. These actions have had real and tangible eﬀects. More recently, some NGOs have taken a diﬀerent tack....
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