A Research Companion
Edited by Mustafa F. Özbilgin and Ayala Malach-Pines
22. Gender and the MBA: intrinsic and extrinsic beneﬁts Ruth Simpson and Jane Sturges INTRODUCTION Women have moved into the labour market in increasing numbers, with this increase being particularly marked in management. In the UK, for example, between 1971 and 1997, the proportion of women in management has risen steadily from 9 per cent to 28 per cent (Labour Force Survey, 1997). Canada has seen a similar rise from 16 per cent to 33 per cent over the same period (Statistics Canada, 1997). However, in both countries and in most sectors, men continue to outnumber women at higher management levels: for example, at board and director level recent ﬁgures suggest that in the UK, women still hold only 13.2 per cent of posts (Institute of Management, 2004), whereas in Canada at 11 per cent the ﬁgure is even lower (Catalyst, 2005). One strategy men and women adopt to move into higher levels of management is to equip themselves with an MBA. This has been noted both in Canada (Burke, 1994) and the UK (Goﬀee and Nicholson, 1994; Simpson and Altman, 2000). Women now account for one-third of MBA students in the UK and Canada (AMBA, 1997; Business Week, 1997) and the ﬁgure for the USA – the largest MBA market in the world, is similar (Catalyst, 2000). The MBA is viewed by many as a worthwhile investment, and the increase in the number of MBA programmes in North America and Europe is indicative of the perceived beneﬁts...
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