An International Research Handbook
Edited by Ruud E. Smits, Stefan Kuhlmann and Phillip Shapira
Chapter 2: Inside the Public Scientific System: Changing Modes of Knowledge Production
Ben R. Martin INTRODUCTION Over the last 20 years, we have witnessed significant changes in the ways (or 'modes') in which knowledge is produced (Gibbons et al. 1994; Nowotony et al. 2001). Amongst other things, these changes pose a fundamental challenge to the traditional distinction between 'basic' and 'applied' research. Those researchers who are involved in 'Mode 2' knowledge production or in research in 'Pasteur's Quadrant' (Stokes 1997), or who are pursuing 'frontier research' (Harris et al. 2005), may well be concerned both with seeking new understanding about the world and at the same time with generating useful knowledge that can be applied in developing a new technology. As a result, there appears to be a much closer and more intimate connection between the resulting science and technology than in previous decades, with few of the barriers that arise when basic research and applied research are carried out separately, as they were to a significant extent in previous decades. Those engaged in 'Mode 2' or in 'frontier research' pursue questions with little regard for established disciplinary boundaries. This may involve multi-, inter- or transdisciplinary research that brings :together researchers from different disciplinary or technological backgrounds, with different theoretical and conceptual approaches, techniques, methodologies and instrumentation, and perhaps even different goals and motivations (for example, advancing scientific understanding, developing technology, or creating an innovation). In parallel with these changes in the modes of knowledge production, we have seen the emergence of new policies and institutional configurations for facilitating border-spanning research collaboration...
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