An International Research Handbook
Edited by Ruud E. Smits, Stefan Kuhlmann and Phillip Shapira
Chapter 14: The Evolution of Innovation Paradigms and their Influence on Research, Technological Development and Innovation Policy Instruments
Patries Boekholt INTRODUCTION This chapter describes the historical evolution of public policies to enhance science, technology and innovation. Attention is given to the design and implementation of policy instruments in successive periods as the theoretical and empirical understanding of the innovation process has evolved. In line with the general argument of this book, instruments are analysed in conjunction with the gradual development of different analytical concepts of the innovation process and the evolving understanding of bottlenecks that constrain private research investment in science and technology. The development of public policies is strongly interlinked with progress in thinking about innovation processes and the interconnection between science and innovation. The theoretical models used to understand how new knowledge is created and translated into innovations and conversely how innovations have spurred the creation of new knowledge have shown considerable developments over the past few decades. These models have affected policy makers and the way they have designed policy instruments to stimulate innovation. This chapter focuses on how governments and not-for-profit intermediaries have responded to the challenge of innovation. Thus, this chapter will not describe in detail the evolution in the thinking on the innovation process and the interaction between science and innovation, which is covered in earlier chapters, but rather describes how these developments translated into public science and technology policy instruments. Four types of policy domains discussed in the literature are closely related: science policy, research (and development) policy, technology policy and innovation policy. Each of these policies addresses a specific part...
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