A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 6: Firms: Changes in Trip Patterns, Production Prices, Locations and in the Human Resource Policy due to Road Pricing
6. Firms: changes in trip patterns, product prices, locations and in the human resource policy due to road pricing Taede Tillema, Bert van Wee, Jan Rouwendal and Jos van Ommeren 6.1 INTRODUCTION Road-pricing policies are increasingly being implemented in urbanized areas around the world, with the aims of alleviating congestion,1 maintaining the accessibility of urban regions and minimizing negative environmental eﬀects of road traﬃc (van Wee, 1995; de Wit and van Gent, 1998; Verhoef, 2000). An additional motivation is the generation of revenues that can be used to build and maintain infrastructure. The introduction of road-pricing measures might have an eﬀect on both household and ﬁrm behaviour. Whereas Chapter 5 in this volume has already focused on the behavioural responses of households to road pricing, this chapter shifts attention to the behavioural changes of ﬁrms. 6.2 THEORY AND OUTLINE Transport costs are generally regarded as a main determinant of the location of economic activity. This is true for both classical location theory (Max Weber) and for the new economic geography. For instance, Krugman’s (1991) core–periphery model stresses the interrelationship between transport costs and the polarization of regions. The model shows that, in particular settings, the (long-run) eﬀects of modest changes in transport costs on location patterns of industries can be large and this conclusion has been repeated in numerous later variants of the model. This suggests that measures that inﬂuence transport costs in a systematic manner, such as road pricing, may have potentially...
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