A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 9: Optimal Toll Design Problem: A Dynamic Network Modelling Approach
Michiel Bliemer, Dusica Joksimovic and Piet Bovy 9.1 9.1.1 INTRODUCTION Background Road pricing is one of the market-based policy instruments that inﬂuences the travel behaviour of users of a transportation network. Road pricing is a type of responsive pricing that can change travel patterns by inﬂuencing users’ travel choices at various levels (for example, departure time choice, route choice). Many researchers have been working on road-pricing problems (see, for example, May and Milne, 2000; Verhoef, 2002), but almost all of these modelling studies consider only static traﬃc models. Dynamic models, however, describe the problem more accurately and are required for studies that look at time-varying road pricing. However, formulating and solving dynamic models with time-varying pricing is much more complex than with static models. In this chapter we are dealing with the time-varying optimal toll design problem for planning purposes. Uniform and variable (time-varying) tolls during the peak are considered, and travellers’ responses (route choice and departure-time choice) to these tolls are taken into account. Charging will, in general, also lead to a lower travel demand. However, for simplicity, the total number of travellers is assumed constant in this chapter. We shall consider tolling schemes in which the road authority has already decided on which links to toll and which period to toll. Then, for diﬀerent tolling patterns (for example, uniform or time varying), the aim is to determine optimal toll levels given a certain policy objective, such as minimizing total travel time or maximizing total...
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