Pricing in Road Transport
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Pricing in Road Transport

A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective

Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee

Transport pricing is high on the political agenda throughout the world, but as the authors illustrate, governments seeking to implement this often face challenging questions and significant barriers. The associated policy and research questions cannot always be addressed adequately from a mono-disciplinary perspective. This book shows how a multi-disciplinary approach may lead to new types of analysis and insights, contributing to a better understanding of the intricacies of transport pricing and eventually to a potentially more effective and acceptable design of such policies. The study addresses important policy and research themes such as the possible motives for introducing road transport pricing and potential conflicts between these motives, behavioural responses to transport pricing for households and firms, the modelling of transport pricing, and the acceptability of pricing.
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Chapter 9: Optimal Toll Design Problem: A Dynamic Network Modelling Approach

Michiel Bliemer, Dusica Joksimovic and Piet Bovy


Michiel Bliemer, Dusica Joksimovic and Piet Bovy 9.1 9.1.1 INTRODUCTION Background Road pricing is one of the market-based policy instruments that influences the travel behaviour of users of a transportation network. Road pricing is a type of responsive pricing that can change travel patterns by influencing users’ travel choices at various levels (for example, departure time choice, route choice). Many researchers have been working on road-pricing problems (see, for example, May and Milne, 2000; Verhoef, 2002), but almost all of these modelling studies consider only static traffic models. Dynamic models, however, describe the problem more accurately and are required for studies that look at time-varying road pricing. However, formulating and solving dynamic models with time-varying pricing is much more complex than with static models. In this chapter we are dealing with the time-varying optimal toll design problem for planning purposes. Uniform and variable (time-varying) tolls during the peak are considered, and travellers’ responses (route choice and departure-time choice) to these tolls are taken into account. Charging will, in general, also lead to a lower travel demand. However, for simplicity, the total number of travellers is assumed constant in this chapter. We shall consider tolling schemes in which the road authority has already decided on which links to toll and which period to toll. Then, for different tolling patterns (for example, uniform or time varying), the aim is to determine optimal toll levels given a certain policy objective, such as minimizing total travel time or maximizing total...

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