A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective
Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee
Chapter 10: Acceptability of Road Pricing
1 Tommy Gärling, Cecilia Jakobsson, Peter Loukopoulos and Satoshi Fujii 10.1 INTRODUCTION The urgent economic, social and environmental problems now being experienced worldwide as a result of increasing trends in car ownership and use have been amply documented (for example, Goodwin, 1996; Crawford, 2000; Black, 2001; Hine and Grieco, 2003; Whitelegg, 2003). Various policy measures that aim to reduce the levels of car-use-related congestion, noise and air pollution have been proposed and implemented. Since the proposed policy measures focus on changing or reducing demand for private car use, they are generally referred to as either ‘mobility management’ or ‘travel demand management’ (TDM) (Pas, 1995; Kitamura et al., 1997). Road pricing (RP) has, in its various forms, been on the political agenda for a long time. One of the ﬁrst mentions of charging motorists for using urban road space in order to moderate traﬃc levels can be found in the Smeed Report (Ministry of Transport, 1964). Yet, since the report was issued, very few successful implementations have been made, notable exceptions being those in Singapore and a host of Norwegian cities. On the other hand, reports of failures abound, as in Hong Kong (for example, Hau, 1990), Stockholm (for example, Ahlstrand, 1998), and the Netherlands (for example, Hårsman, 2003). A critical turning-point appears to have been reached, however, following the successful implementation of the London Congestion Charging Scheme on 17 February 2003 – a response to that city’s severe congestion and environmental problems (Richards, 2006; Santos, Chapter 14 of...
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