Pricing in Road Transport
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Pricing in Road Transport

A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective

Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee

Transport pricing is high on the political agenda throughout the world, but as the authors illustrate, governments seeking to implement this often face challenging questions and significant barriers. The associated policy and research questions cannot always be addressed adequately from a mono-disciplinary perspective. This book shows how a multi-disciplinary approach may lead to new types of analysis and insights, contributing to a better understanding of the intricacies of transport pricing and eventually to a potentially more effective and acceptable design of such policies. The study addresses important policy and research themes such as the possible motives for introducing road transport pricing and potential conflicts between these motives, behavioural responses to transport pricing for households and firms, the modelling of transport pricing, and the acceptability of pricing.
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Chapter 10: Acceptability of Road Pricing

Tommy Gärling, Cecilia Jakobsson, Peter Loukopoulos and Satoshi Fujii


1 Tommy Gärling, Cecilia Jakobsson, Peter Loukopoulos and Satoshi Fujii 10.1 INTRODUCTION The urgent economic, social and environmental problems now being experienced worldwide as a result of increasing trends in car ownership and use have been amply documented (for example, Goodwin, 1996; Crawford, 2000; Black, 2001; Hine and Grieco, 2003; Whitelegg, 2003). Various policy measures that aim to reduce the levels of car-use-related congestion, noise and air pollution have been proposed and implemented. Since the proposed policy measures focus on changing or reducing demand for private car use, they are generally referred to as either ‘mobility management’ or ‘travel demand management’ (TDM) (Pas, 1995; Kitamura et al., 1997). Road pricing (RP) has, in its various forms, been on the political agenda for a long time. One of the first mentions of charging motorists for using urban road space in order to moderate traffic levels can be found in the Smeed Report (Ministry of Transport, 1964). Yet, since the report was issued, very few successful implementations have been made, notable exceptions being those in Singapore and a host of Norwegian cities. On the other hand, reports of failures abound, as in Hong Kong (for example, Hau, 1990), Stockholm (for example, Ahlstrand, 1998), and the Netherlands (for example, Hårsman, 2003). A critical turning-point appears to have been reached, however, following the successful implementation of the London Congestion Charging Scheme on 17 February 2003 – a response to that city’s severe congestion and environmental problems (Richards, 2006; Santos, Chapter 14 of...

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