Pricing in Road Transport
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Pricing in Road Transport

A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective

Edited by Erik Verhoef, Michiel Bliemer, Linda Steg and Bert van Wee

Transport pricing is high on the political agenda throughout the world, but as the authors illustrate, governments seeking to implement this often face challenging questions and significant barriers. The associated policy and research questions cannot always be addressed adequately from a mono-disciplinary perspective. This book shows how a multi-disciplinary approach may lead to new types of analysis and insights, contributing to a better understanding of the intricacies of transport pricing and eventually to a potentially more effective and acceptable design of such policies. The study addresses important policy and research themes such as the possible motives for introducing road transport pricing and potential conflicts between these motives, behavioural responses to transport pricing for households and firms, the modelling of transport pricing, and the acceptability of pricing.
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Chapter 12: Sensitivity of Geographical Accessibility Measures Under Road-Pricing Conditions

Taede Tillema, Tom de Jong, Bert van Wee and Dirk van Amelsfort


Taede Tillema, Tom de Jong, Bert van Wee and Dirk van Amelsfort 12.1 INTRODUCTION Accessibility indicators or measures give the opportunity to gain a quick and an interpretable insight into (accessibility) effects due to changes in the land use or transport system (for example, caused by certain policy interventions). These advantages might also make accessibility indicators a useful policy tool to assess (transport-geographical) effects due to transport pricing. There are several categories/types of accessibility measures with which accessibility can be computed (Handy and Niemeier, 1997; Bruinsma and Rietveld, 1998; Geurs and Ritsema van Eck, 2001; Tillema et al., 2003; Geurs and van Wee, 2004). These geographical accessibility measures have in common that they generally consist of an opportunity component, on the one hand, and an impedance component, on the other. The location component indicates which, or which type of, activity location(s) is (are) central within the analysis. Examples of activity locations are jobs, shops, services, other people, amusement parks and so on. The second component, the impedance, indicates the difficulty of reaching a destination from a certain origin location. This impedance can be expressed by various factors, the most important of which are distance, time and costs. The geographical accessibility effects of road-pricing may be evaluated in different ways, depending on the goal of the study and the argument of the impedance function. If a distance-based accessibility measure is used to evaluate road-pricing effects, accessibility is not likely to change unless, perhaps (in...

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