Management Challenges and Symptoms
Edited by Janice Langan-Fox, Cary L. Cooper and Richard J. Klimoski
Chapter 9: Employee Attachment and Deviance in Organizations
Thomas E. Becker and Rebecca J. Bennett Workplace deviance refers to intentional acts initiated by employees that violate norms of the organization and have the potential to harm the organization or its members (Bennett and Robinson, 2000, 2003). The yearly costs of deviance in the USA are staggering: $4.2 billion for violence (Bensimon, 1997), $50 billion for employee theft and fraud (Sandberg, 2003), and $54 billion for corporate cyberloaﬁng (Conlin, 2000). Add to this the costs of sabotage (Ambrose et al., 2002) and slowed productivity (Dunlop and Lee, 2004), and it becomes obvious that organizational deviance constitutes an extremely serious problem for employees, employers and society. Much has been learned about types of deviance and their antecedents and consequences (see Bennett and Robinson, 2003; Berry et al., in press), but less is known about how misbehavior might be reduced. Researchers have studied organizational deviance as an eﬀect of (a) frustration, perceived injustice and other reactions to organizational experiences (e.g. Greenberg and Alge, 1998; Spector, 1997), (b) personality traits such as dispositional aggressiveness and anger (e.g. Deﬀenbacher, 1992; James, 1998), and (c) norms, modeling and other aspects of social context (e.g. Bennett et al., 2005; Giacalone et al., 1997; Robinson and O’Leary-Kelly, 1998). These antecedents suggest that there are a number of ways that deviance might be reduced in the workplace. For instance, selection processes may be used to screen for hostile applicants, abusive supervision might be ameliorated by careful training, and performance management systems may be designed...
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