- Elgar original reference
Edited by Jan Peil and Irene van Staveren
Chapter 54: Rationality
Shaun P. Hargreaves Heap I The dominant model of individual rationality in economics, sometimes known as the rational choice model, identifies individuals with their preferences and casts reason in the role of deciding how best to satisfy them. This is a calculative, instrumental sense of reason. Its task, much as David Hume suggested when famously averring reason as ‘slave of the passions’, is to work out the means to given ends. A person’s preferences are often represented in this tradition by a mathematical device called a ‘utility’ function. Some care is required with the term ‘utility’. It reflects the historical association of this model with the moral philosophy of utilitarianism, yet that connection has long been lost. The utility function now simply assigns numbers to outcomes such that the highest number goes to the outcome that best satisfies a person’s preferences, the second highest number goes to the next best, and so on until the least valued outcome gets the lowest number. This mapping enables simple mathematics to be used in the analysis of choice, because acting so as to best satisfy preferences is now the equivalent of choosing to maximize utility. To re-create the connection with the moral philosophy of utilitarianism would require in addition that these ‘utility’ numbers be interpersonally comparable, whereas they are entirely personal devices for representing preferences (and so by themselves are only likely to license a condition like Pareto optimality). Little is said about a person’s preferences on this account. They must satisfy certain...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.