Edited by Jan Peil and Irene van Staveren
Chapter 72: Utilitarianism
Johan J. Graafland Introduction The basic principle of utilitarianism is ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’. Or, more formally, an act is right if and only if the sum total of utilities produced by that act is greater than the sum total of utilities produced by any other act the agent could have performed in its place (Velasquez 1998, p. 73). Recent improvements in measuring happiness have increased the popularity of utilitarianism among economists. According to Layard (2003, p. 50), utilitarianism is the only ethical standard that provides an overarching principle by which to solve conflicts between principles. A practical method of applying utilitarianism is by cost-benefit analysis. The basic procedure of cost-benefit analysis is as follows. If we must decide whether to perform action A, the rule is perform A if the benefits for present and future populations exceed those of the next best alternative course of action; if this is not the case, do not perform A. For this purpose, numerical values are assigned to costs and benefits of performing an action. After adding these, one should accept the project with the greatest net benefits. Utilitarianism has great practical value. It is consistent with the value of efficiency and in harmony with the way policymakers often make up their minds by looking at the beneficial and harmful consequences of a particular act. It also stimulates decision-makers to conduct a systematic overview of the benefits and costs of an act. Economic policy bureaus increasingly use cost-benefit analysis to...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.