Politics, Foreign Policy and Regional Cooperation
Edited by Paul G. Harris
Chapter 10: Common Policy on Climate Change: Land Use, Domestic Stakeholders and EU Foreign Policy
10. Common policy on climate change: land use, domestic stakeholders, and EU foreign policy Martina Jung, Axel Michaelowa, Ingrid Nestle, Sandra Greiner and Michael Dutschke* INTRODUCTION This chapter analyzes the foreign policy of the European Union (EU) on one of the most contentious issues in international negotiations on global climate change (GCC): the treatment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sources and removals by sinks from land use and forestry. In the international climate negotiations, this issue is formally referred to as Land use, Land-use Change and Forestry (LULUCF). It was previously lumped under the label of ‘sinks’, with this term being deﬁned by the United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) as ‘any process, activity or mechanism which removes a greenhouse gas, an aerosol or a precursor of a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere’, eg when CO2 is sequestered from the air by biomass (e.g., trees and other plants) during photosynthesis.1 While nobody denies the importance of forest protection and afforestation of degraded land for global climate protection, there was an intense argument among states involved in the GCC negotiations as to whether GHG removals (sequestration) from the atmosphere by sinks should be used to offset GHG emissions from fossil fuels. Proponents have praised the positive effects of forestry projects on biodiversity and watershed protection, and the low costs of sequestration compared to mitigation in the energy sector. Opponents have argued that sequestration is difﬁcult to measure and monitor and that it is reversible. These...
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