Europe and Global Climate Change
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Europe and Global Climate Change

Politics, Foreign Policy and Regional Cooperation

Edited by Paul G. Harris

The core objective of this book is to better understand the role of foreign policy – the crossovers and interactions between domestic and international politics and policies – in efforts to preserve the environment and natural resources. Underlying this objective is the belief that it is not enough to analyze domestic or international political actors, institutions and processes by themselves. We need to understand the interactions among them, something that explicit thought about foreign policy can help us do.
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Chapter 12: Meeting Kyoto Commitments: EU Influence on Norway and Germany

Guri Bang, Jonas Vevatne and Michelle Twena


Guri Bang, Jonas Vevatne and Michelle Twena INTRODUCTION This chapter explores how the environmental policies of the European Union (EU) influence domestic climate policy in individual European countries. Environmental policy has been part of joint EU policy for years, and now a common policy on global climate change (GCC) is developing. At the same time, in 2004 the EU expanded its membership from 15 to 25 states. Foreign and environmental policies are increasingly co-ordinated for a broad range of European countries. The question is whether the influence of the EU on national policies is growing as a result of increasing integration. We look specifically at two countries: Germany, an EU member state; and Norway, a non-member.1 Both of these countries have expressed strong prior national preferences for policy choice. Thus the question is to what extent the policy decisions of the EU have been able to affect the ultimate choice of policy instruments in these countries. To address this question empirically, we focus on the policy formulation of a particularly relevant and recently debated GCC policy issue, namely, emissions trading (ET). At the Kyoto Conference in 1997, parties to the United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) acknowledged that trading in emissions allowances was a cost-effective instrument to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The specific details of how the instrument could be implemented were not decided at the time, but were left to subsequent international GCC negotiations. It was not until the seventh...

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