Politics, Foreign Policy and Regional Cooperation
Edited by Paul G. Harris
Chapter 13: Climate Change Policy and the Enlargement of the EU
Leonardo Massai INTRODUCTION Since the early 1990s, the European Union (EU) has assumed a leading role in the international community’s efforts to mitigate global climate change (GCC) by curbing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The most important enlargement in the history of the EU occurred on 1 May 2004 when 10 Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) joined the organization. These new member states are the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland (see Chapter 5), Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia.1 The EU’s environmental foreign policy (EFP), along with many other EU policies, has been considerably affected by this development. The consequences of the enlargement for European EFP on global climate change are investigated in this chapter. The chapter begins with an analysis of the EU’s institutional structure for enlargement and their implications for European GCC policy. This is followed by a case study of the implications of enlargement for the EU’s Emission Allowance Trading Scheme (EATD). The chapter also shows how environmental and, above all, economic interests play a fundamental role in the deﬁnition of the EU’s GCC policy.2 The chapter builds on the systemic approach to EFP (see Barkdull and Harris 2002) to the extent that the international climate regime and requirements in the United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and in the Kyoto Protocol (which entered into force on 16 February 2005) have contributed to the development of an advanced European GCC strategy and policy. The procedure for the accession of the new...
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