Protecting Nature
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Protecting Nature

Organizations and Networks in Europe and the USA

Edited by C. S.A. (Kris) van Koppen and William T. Markham

Providing a detailed description of all the major nature protection organizations and networks, including overviews of their current membership, activities, and as far as available, budgets, Protecting Nature will be of great interest to lecturers and postgraduate students in social science fields, as well as researchers in the fields of environmental policy, environmental NGOs, social movements, civil society, nature management and policy. Members of nature protection, environmental and other civil society organizations who seek a better understanding of the historical development of nature protection organizations and networks, as well as the strategies employed by those organizations, will also find much to interest them in this book.
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Chapter 7: Trees, Ecology and Biological Diversity: Norwegian Nature Protection and Environmentalism

Ørnulf Seippel


Ørnulf Seippel INTRODUCTION As of 2005, about 12 per cent of Norway was protected under the Nature Conservation Act. Behind this accomplishment stands a long, cumbersome process in which individuals, voluntary organizations and public actors all played decisive roles. Indeed, even though the environmental protection of today’s late modern era is quite different from early twentieth-century efforts to mobilize on behalf of nature or the political ecology of the 1970s, one common theme runs through them all: nature protection. In the early years, nature protection was mainly articulated as concern for small areas, specific species, or even single trees; later it manifested itself as efforts to protect ecosystems and more recently as maintaining biological diversity. There is a large body of literature about Norwegian organizations that have concerned themselves with nature protection and environmentalism, and some research about nature protection policies; however, surprisingly little research focuses specifically on the intersection of the two: that is, on the part voluntary organizations and networks have played in the development of nature protection efforts. This chapter helps to fill this gap by addressing the development of nature protection and environmental organizations, their role in the development of nature protection policies, and, more briefly, their contribution to the general political modernization of Norwegian society. Norwegian organizations concerned with nature and environmental protection can be succinctly described as having developed from petty bourgeois and scientific concerns (1850–1962), via a period of political radicalization (1962–85), to...

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