Protecting Nature
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Protecting Nature

Organizations and Networks in Europe and the USA

Edited by C. S.A. (Kris) van Koppen and William T. Markham

Providing a detailed description of all the major nature protection organizations and networks, including overviews of their current membership, activities, and as far as available, budgets, Protecting Nature will be of great interest to lecturers and postgraduate students in social science fields, as well as researchers in the fields of environmental policy, environmental NGOs, social movements, civil society, nature management and policy. Members of nature protection, environmental and other civil society organizations who seek a better understanding of the historical development of nature protection organizations and networks, as well as the strategies employed by those organizations, will also find much to interest them in this book.
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Chapter 8: Nature Protection NGOs in Poland: Between Tradition, Professionalism and Radicalism

Piotr Gliński and Małgorzata Koziarek


Piotr Glin and Mal gorzata Koziarek ´ski THE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NATURE PROTECTION IN POLAND Early Origins (Thirteenth to Nineteenth Centuries) The tradition of nature protection in Poland goes back at least to the thirteenth century, when a royal edict on the protection and winter feeding of the aurochs (Bos primigenius) in the Jaktorowska Forest was issued. It was one example of so called regalia, legal acts granting the privilege to members of royal and aristocratic courts to hunt specific animals. At the turn of the sixteenth century, King Wladyslaw Jagiel lo placed the yew tree under protection for military and economic reasons, as its wood was used for the production of bows. In 1529, the Lithuanian Statute provided for protection of beaver lodges. These legal regulations, although motivated by reasons other than nature protection, indirectly provided a degree of protection to specific animal and plant species (Karaczun and Indeka 1999, p. 392). The modern nature protection movement in Poland, however, appeared much later – in the mid-nineteenth century. At that time, ideas about nature protection were tightly linked to ideas about the development of the Polish culture and national independence. (Since the late eighteenth century, Polish territory had been divided among Russia, Prussia and Austria.) Nature motifs also played an important role in nineteenth-century Polish poetry and prose, and were dominant factors in shaping public awareness of Polish identity. All three of the most important cultural and literary currents of the nineteenth century: Romanticism, positivism and modernism (the...

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