Organizations and Networks in Europe and the USA
Edited by C. S.A. (Kris) van Koppen and William T. Markham
Chapter 11: Nature Protection in Western Environmentalism: A Comparative Analysis
C.S.A. (Kris) van Koppen and William T. Markham INTRODUCTION When we started the project that culminated in this book, we believed that a comparative study of the development of Western nature protection organizations and networks from the past to the present would make a meaningful contribution to the literature. As pointed out in Chapter 1, nature protection organizations and networks have not been the object of much comparative research. Yet they have occupied an important place in the hearts and minds of citizens of virtually every Western nation for over a century. They have a substantial record of achievement, and they are increasingly involved in worldwide eﬀorts to protect nature. They have played inﬂuential roles as interest groups, as components of social movements, and in the development of environmentalism and civil society, and there is every reason to expect that they will continue to play these roles in the future. Our initial assumptions have proven to be well grounded. The foregoing chapters demonstrate the continuing inﬂuence of nature protection organizations and networks within the environmental movement and within civil society at large. They illustrate not only striking similarities between countries, but signiﬁcant diﬀerences as well. In this chapter, we endeavour to take stock of the ﬁndings in the context of the theoretical considerations presented in the ﬁrst chapter. When we embarked on this task, we soon came to realize that it is not possible for a single chapter to encompass the rich diversity of the...
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