Handbook on Brand and Experience Management
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Handbook on Brand and Experience Management

Edited by Bernd H. Schmitt and David L. Rogers

This important Handbook explores new and emerging directions in both brand management research and practice. It encompasses a diverse set of approaches including the latest academic research offering new frameworks for understanding brand management, the researcher’s perspective on current tools in practice by brand managers, new research and conceptual frameworks for understanding and managing customer experiences and recent empirical research and scale development in both brand and experience management. The book focuses on practical, managerial, and organizational best practices.
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Chapter 13: Experiential Attributes and Consumer Judgments

J. Josko Brakus, Bernd H. Schmitt and Shi Zhang


J. Josko Brakus, Bernd H. Schmitt and Shi Zhang ˇ Traditionally, marketers have focused on functional and meaningful product differentiation and have shown that such differentiation is important because consumers engage in a deliberate reasoning process (Chernev, 2001; Shafir et al., 1993; Simonson, 1989). However, nowadays products in many categories are functionally highly similar, and it is difficult for consumers to differentiate products based on functional attributes. An alternative way of differentiating is to emphasize non-functional product characteristics or certain aspects of the judgment context. For example, the VW New Beetle brand has used unique colors and shapes very prominently. Apple Computers has used a smiley face that appeared on the screen of computers when they were powered up as well as translucent colors to differentiate, for example, its iMac and iPod lines from competitive products. In addition, Apple Computers has integrated the colors and shapes of the product design with the design of its websites and the so-called AppleStores. Similar approaches focusing on colors, shapes or affective stimuli have been used for other global brands as well and for local brands in all sorts of product categories, including commodities like water and salt. Here we refer to such attributes, which have emerged in marketing as key differentiators, as ‘experiential attributes’ (Schmitt, 1999). Specifically, experiential attributes consist of non-verbal stimuli that include sensory cues such as colors (Bellizzi et al., 1983; Bellizzi and Hite, 1992; Degeratu et al., 2000; Gorn et...

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