M1394 - DALGLISH TEXT.qxd 15/7/08 15:23 Page 87 Gary Graham:GRAHAM'S IMAC JOBS: GRAYUMS G4 8. Encouraging participation WHY ENCOURAGE STUDENT PARTICIPATION? Eﬀective class participation depends on students being actively engaged in classroom activity, supportive of each other and civil in their exchanges. Class participation is one major vehicle towards achieving quality learning (Petres 2006). Participation can involve the willingness to ask questions, to answer questions put by the teacher, and to engage in discussion activities with other members of the class. Research (in the West) shows that learning is an active rather than a passive process. Most people learn: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 10 per cent of what they read. 20 per cent of what they hear. 30 per cent of what they see. 50 per cent of what they see and hear. 70 per cent of what they talk over with others. 80 per cent of what they use and do in real life. 95 per cent of what they teach someone else. (Attributed to William Glasser, cited in Biggs 2003, p. 80.) Assuming there is validity to this summary of learning eﬀectiveness, participation and the opportunity to talk over with others what they are learning would appear to increase the eﬀectiveness of the learning process greatly. Participation in the classroom increases the activity the student is engaged in and extends the learning they do through seeing and hearing. Other activities such as working in groups and the use of case studies in the classroom extend the possibilities...
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