Managerial and Organizational Challenges
Edited by Ronald J. Burke and Cary L. Cooper
Jack N. Kondrasuk and Elizabeth Arwood1 INTRODUCTION The morning of 11 September 2001 seemed like a typical morning to most citizens of the United States (US). Businesses and people were going along at their usual, hectic pace. Then at 8:46 a.m. Eastern Standard Time a plane crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. About 15 minutes later another hijacked commercial airliner crashed into the South Tower. News media across the US began reporting these horriﬁc and unexplainable events. People were transﬁxed by the ﬁre and smoke bursting out of the Twin Towers as viewed on their TV screens. The US populace was accustomed to seeing violence on TV programs and knew it was not real. But it was real. We saw the desperation and horror of people trying to escape the infernos by jumping out of windows of the Twin Towers, of people running for their lives through the billowing smoke and ﬂying debris as the South Tower completely collapsed and disintegrated at 10:05 a.m. Resembling a mirror image, the North Tower collapsed at 10:28 a.m. The ﬁreﬁghters and police oﬃcers attempted to evacuate the employees of the buildings. Many of these public servants, as well as bystanders watching in disbelief, were engulfed in the infernos and buried alive. At 9:45 a.m. the headquarters of the US military, the Pentagon, was directly hit with a third commercial airliner also loaded with fuel and used as...
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