National Innovation Strategies in the Global Economy
Edited by Göran Marklund, Nicholas S. Vonortas and Charles W. Wessner
Chapter 2: The Challenges of Globalization: Strategic Choices for Innovation Policy
Susana Borrás, Cristina Chaminade and Charles Edquist 2.1 INTRODUCTION The vast literature on systems of innovation is rich in theoretical and empirical studies on the complexity and institutionally embedded processes of interaction and learning at regional, sectoral and national level (Asheim and Gertler, 2005; Edquist, 1997, 2005; Loasby, 2001; Lundvall, 1992, 2005; Malerba, 2004; Nooteboom, 2000). So far, however, this literature has not studied, in a comprehensive manner, the nature and types of strategic choices that public actors in systems of innovation are facing in the everchanging social, economic and technological contexts (Lundvall and Borrás, 1998). This chapter is a ﬁrst step in this direction. It discusses the implications of globalization for the strategic choices for innovation policy. The speciﬁc point of departure is the set of challenges that the process of globalization has been posing to systems of innovation in industrialized and developing countries, past and present. During recent decades, research and innovation activities are becoming increasingly global. While new actors have emerged in the global innovation arena (notably some Asian countries) the nature of the globalization process is changing from the international exploitation of nationally produced goods to the global generation of innovation (Archibugi and Michie, 1995). As a consequence, the geographical pattern of innovation activities is shifting and the boundaries between local, national and global innovation systems are becoming blurred. This new global context is posing great challenges for policy makers with regard to the nature and types of strategic choices they need to...
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