Edited by André de Palma, Robin Lindsey, Emile Quinet and Roger Vickerman
Chapter 3: Transport in Spatial Models of Economic Development
Michael Wegener INTRODUCTION This chapter gives an overview of the role of transport in spatial models of economic development. The term overview indicates that, unlike in the other chapters in this part of the Handbook, individual models are not presented in detail but instead a cross-cutting, comparative review of relevant current approaches to modeling the contribution of transport to economic development is given. The term spatial indicates that the analysis addresses all scales, from the global through the continental, national and regional to the local scale. The movement from global to local is accompanied by a change in spatial resolution from the macroeconomic level of whole countries or regions to the microeconomic level of individual firms. At each level different aspects of transport become relevant for location decisions, and different techniques need to be applied to model the impact of transport on economic development. The term economic development is used to focus the analysis on one specific type of forecasting distinct from others, such as forecasting demographic development, migration, residential location, transport flows or environmental impacts, notwithstanding the fact that many of the models examined forecast these as well. The chapter is organized into two major parts. The first part deals with multiregional economic models. The size of their regions may differ, but all of them consider regional aggregates instead of individual firms, such as gross domestic product or employment, possibly classified by economic sector. Some of these models explicitly model trade flows between regions and some do not. The...
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