A Handbook of Transport Economics
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A Handbook of Transport Economics

Edited by André de Palma, Robin Lindsey, Emile Quinet and Roger Vickerman

Bringing together insights and perspectives from close to 70 of the world’s leading experts in the field, this timely Handbook provides an up-to-date guide to the most recent and state-of-the-art advances in transport economics. The comprehensive coverage includes topics such as the relationship between transport and the spatial economy, recent advances in travel demand analysis, the external costs of transport, investment appraisal, pricing, equity issues, competition and regulation, the role of public–private partnerships and the development of policy in local bus services, rail, air and maritime transport.
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Chapter 18: Transport and Energy

Kenneth Button


Kenneth Button INTRODUCTION To move anything requires an expenditure of energy. Transport, therefore, is by definition a user of energy. The amount and types of energy that are used, however, have varied considerably over time as technology has changed. For a long time, much it used to be in the form of the food given to animals, beasts-of-burden or simply human consumption of calories in various forms. Renewable sources of energy, wind and waterpower in particular, have been widely exploited and still are although often in somewhat different ways. Wind power, for example, is more often used indirectly as a means of generating electricity than for propelling ships or Chinese wheelbarrows. With the exception of some less developed countries where the beast of burden often still plays a major role, much of modern transport since the advent of the steam engine has relied on nonrenewable sources of energy such as coal, oil and natural gas. The levels of current and projected future use of oil by the transport industries are particularly impressive. While there are national differences between countries, Table 18.1, for example, provides some information on both the absolute and relative final demand for energy in the European Union, including forecasts of likely use in the future. The transport sector accounted for some 80 per cent of the energy demand growth between 1990 and 2000, and became the largest demand sector. The predominant role of the transport sector in final energy demand growth is projected to continue under EU...

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