Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society
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Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society

Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen

The key message of this book is that heterogeneity should be seen as an intrinsic and indispensable element of knowledge systems. The authors address the concept of heterogeneity in a multi-disciplinary fashion, including perspectives from evolutionary economics and innovation system studies, and relate this approach to existing theories in a broad range of fields.
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Chapter 5: Conceptual Framework for an Analysis of Diversity and Heterogeneity in the Knowledge Economy and Society

Elias G. Carayannis


Elias G. Carayannis INTRODUCTION The emerging gloCalizing (i.e. simultaneously globalizing and localizing) (Carayannis and von Zedwitz, 2005; Carayannis and Alexander, 2006) frontier of converging systems, networks and sectors of innovation that is driven by increasingly complex, non-linear and dynamic processes of knowledge creation, diffusion and use, confronts us with the need to reconceptualize – if not reinvent – the ways and means by which knowledge production, utilization and renewal take place in the context of the knowledge economy and society (gloCal knowledge economy and society). Perspectives from and about different parts of the world and diverse human, socioeconomic, technological and cultural contexts are interwoven to produce an emerging new worldview on how specialized knowledge, that is embedded in a particular sociotechnical context, can serve as the unit of reference for stocks and flows of a hybrid, public/private, tacit/codified, tangible/virtual good that represents the building block of the knowledge economy, society and polity. We postulate that one approach to such a reconceptualization is what we call the ‘Mode 3’ system consisting of ‘Innovation Networks’ and ‘Knowledge Clusters’ (see definitions below) for knowledge creation, diffusion and use (Carayannis and Campbell, 2005). This is a multi-layered, multi-modal, multi-nodal and multi-lateral system, encompassing mutually complementary and reinforcing innovation networks and knowledge clusters consisting of human and intellectual capital, shaped by social capital and underpinned by financial capital. The ‘Mode 3 Innovation Ecosystem’ is in short the nexus or hub of the emerging 21st-century Innovation Ecosystem,1 where people,2 culture3 and...

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