Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen
Chapter 5: Conceptual Framework for an Analysis of Diversity and Heterogeneity in the Knowledge Economy and Society
Elias G. Carayannis INTRODUCTION The emerging gloCalizing (i.e. simultaneously globalizing and localizing) (Carayannis and von Zedwitz, 2005; Carayannis and Alexander, 2006) frontier of converging systems, networks and sectors of innovation that is driven by increasingly complex, non-linear and dynamic processes of knowledge creation, diﬀusion and use, confronts us with the need to reconceptualize – if not reinvent – the ways and means by which knowledge production, utilization and renewal take place in the context of the knowledge economy and society (gloCal knowledge economy and society). Perspectives from and about diﬀerent parts of the world and diverse human, socioeconomic, technological and cultural contexts are interwoven to produce an emerging new worldview on how specialized knowledge, that is embedded in a particular sociotechnical context, can serve as the unit of reference for stocks and ﬂows of a hybrid, public/private, tacit/codiﬁed, tangible/virtual good that represents the building block of the knowledge economy, society and polity. We postulate that one approach to such a reconceptualization is what we call the ‘Mode 3’ system consisting of ‘Innovation Networks’ and ‘Knowledge Clusters’ (see deﬁnitions below) for knowledge creation, diﬀusion and use (Carayannis and Campbell, 2005). This is a multi-layered, multi-modal, multi-nodal and multi-lateral system, encompassing mutually complementary and reinforcing innovation networks and knowledge clusters consisting of human and intellectual capital, shaped by social capital and underpinned by ﬁnancial capital. The ‘Mode 3 Innovation Ecosystem’ is in short the nexus or hub of the emerging 21st-century Innovation Ecosystem,1 where people,2 culture3 and...
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