Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society
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Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society

Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen

The key message of this book is that heterogeneity should be seen as an intrinsic and indispensable element of knowledge systems. The authors address the concept of heterogeneity in a multi-disciplinary fashion, including perspectives from evolutionary economics and innovation system studies, and relate this approach to existing theories in a broad range of fields.
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Chapter 9: IPRs and Norwegian Enterprises: Diversification of Innovative Efforts in Norwegian Firms

Eric J. Iversen


9. IPRs and Norwegian enterprises: diversification of innovative efforts in Norwegian firms Eric J. Iversen INTRODUCTION This chapter examines the generation of technological and commercial variety in the Norwegian economy using the complementary lenses of domestic trademark and patent data. Trademarks, which are increasingly used to understand economic activity, are useful in distinguishing products and services from rivals. They can be linked to the differentiation of commercial activity with an assumed innovative character. Patents on the other hand capture technologically innovative activity with an assumed commercial application. They can be linked to innovation, especially in R&D intensive fields such as pharmaceuticals. Patent and trademark registration each reveal something about the ongoing differentiation of economic activity: the former emphasizes invention, the latter commercialization; the former tends to emphasize activity in manufacture, the latter activity in the service sector. There is therefore a significant degree of complementarity in these lenses. This chapter uses the combination to explore the heterogeneity that underlies longer term Norwegian industrial evolution. It first looks at the role of heterogeneity in terms of industrial change, in firm-level activities, and the role of the IPR systems. It then goes on to look at firm-level data illustrating how different Norwegian firms use the two systems. HETEROGENEITY AND INNOVATION In general terms the innovation process can be understood to involve the sustainable generation, distribution and utilization of new economically relevant knowledge that continuously accumulates and is recombined in the economy (David and Foray, 1995)...

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