Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen
Chapter 9: IPRs and Norwegian Enterprises: Diversification of Innovative Efforts in Norwegian Firms
9. IPRs and Norwegian enterprises: diversiﬁcation of innovative eﬀorts in Norwegian ﬁrms Eric J. Iversen INTRODUCTION This chapter examines the generation of technological and commercial variety in the Norwegian economy using the complementary lenses of domestic trademark and patent data. Trademarks, which are increasingly used to understand economic activity, are useful in distinguishing products and services from rivals. They can be linked to the diﬀerentiation of commercial activity with an assumed innovative character. Patents on the other hand capture technologically innovative activity with an assumed commercial application. They can be linked to innovation, especially in R&D intensive ﬁelds such as pharmaceuticals. Patent and trademark registration each reveal something about the ongoing diﬀerentiation of economic activity: the former emphasizes invention, the latter commercialization; the former tends to emphasize activity in manufacture, the latter activity in the service sector. There is therefore a signiﬁcant degree of complementarity in these lenses. This chapter uses the combination to explore the heterogeneity that underlies longer term Norwegian industrial evolution. It ﬁrst looks at the role of heterogeneity in terms of industrial change, in ﬁrm-level activities, and the role of the IPR systems. It then goes on to look at ﬁrm-level data illustrating how diﬀerent Norwegian ﬁrms use the two systems. HETEROGENEITY AND INNOVATION In general terms the innovation process can be understood to involve the sustainable generation, distribution and utilization of new economically relevant knowledge that continuously accumulates and is recombined in the economy (David and Foray, 1995)...
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