Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen
Chapter 12: Heterogeneity as Sectoral Specialization: The Case of EU15
12. Heterogeneity as sectoral specialization: the case of the EU151 Aris Kaloudis INTRODUCTION The starting point of this chapter is the observation that the business sector in many EU Member States exhibits clear sectoral specialization patterns, both in terms of R&D and patenting activities and in terms of economic activities. Hence the main question we deal with is whether and how R&D activities in the EU15’s business R&D relate to the EU15’s technological and economic specialization patterns as compared with the USA and Japan. In general, if the empirical evidence reveals patterns of congruence between the various dimensions of specialization, one would tend to conclude that the national R&D co-evolves, is well attuned to and supports the economic and structural specialization in the EU15. Archibugi and Pianta (1992) found that the scientiﬁc production of advanced OECD economies shows a much lower degree of specialization compared to the more pronounced patterns of technological specialization. With this work as a starting point, we ask whether national business R&D eﬀorts at a sectoral level within Europe reveal heterogeneous and diverse knowledge production embedded in clear and robust national economic structures. We analyse OECD and EUROSTAT data at the lowest possible level of sectoral disaggregation, allowing a better understanding (quantitatively and qualitatively) of specialization proﬁles in the EU15. In brief, the speciﬁc tasks comprised in this chapter are the following: ● ● Collect and compile all data available in OECD or EUROSTAT necessary for the analysis. Calculate...
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