Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society
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Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society

Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen

The key message of this book is that heterogeneity should be seen as an intrinsic and indispensable element of knowledge systems. The authors address the concept of heterogeneity in a multi-disciplinary fashion, including perspectives from evolutionary economics and innovation system studies, and relate this approach to existing theories in a broad range of fields.
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Chapter 13: Heterogeneity and International R & D Collaboration

Elias G. Carayannis


13. Heterogeneity and international R&D collaboration Elias G. Carayannis INTRODUCTION Knowledge does matter: but the question is when, how, and why. Moreover, with the advancement of economies and societies, knowledge matters even more and in ways that are not always predictable or even controllable. Moreover, collaborative, team-based research is now a prevalent mode for conducting fundamental scientific research in many fields. Also, collaboration in scientific research is often both transorganizational and transnational in nature; that is, collaborations frequently involve researchers based within different organizational entities and located in different countries (Georghiou, 1998). Public–private research collaborations are one mechanism by which firms can access or create critical knowledge for use in industrial innovation. Facilitating linkages between public research organizations and firms is viewed as a critical mechanism for increasing the efficiency and outputs of national innovation systems. However, very little is known about how non-domestic firms are involved in collaboration with national public sector research institutions, and the role that these trans-national collaborations play in industrial technology development. Glocal knowledge is a journey of insight and discovery in the emerging global ‘knowledge village’. Perspectives from and about different parts of the world and diverse human, socioeconomic, technological and cultural contexts are presented and interwoven to produce an emerging new worldview on how specialized knowledge that is embedded in a particular sociotechnical context can serve as the unit of reference for stocks and flows of a hybrid, public/private, tacit/codified, tangible/virtual good that represents...

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