Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship
- Science, Innovation, Technology and Entrepreneurship series
Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen
Chapter 13: Heterogeneity and International R & D Collaboration
13. Heterogeneity and international R&D collaboration Elias G. Carayannis INTRODUCTION Knowledge does matter: but the question is when, how, and why. Moreover, with the advancement of economies and societies, knowledge matters even more and in ways that are not always predictable or even controllable. Moreover, collaborative, team-based research is now a prevalent mode for conducting fundamental scientiﬁc research in many ﬁelds. Also, collaboration in scientiﬁc research is often both transorganizational and transnational in nature; that is, collaborations frequently involve researchers based within diﬀerent organizational entities and located in diﬀerent countries (Georghiou, 1998). Public–private research collaborations are one mechanism by which ﬁrms can access or create critical knowledge for use in industrial innovation. Facilitating linkages between public research organizations and ﬁrms is viewed as a critical mechanism for increasing the eﬃciency and outputs of national innovation systems. However, very little is known about how non-domestic ﬁrms are involved in collaboration with national public sector research institutions, and the role that these trans-national collaborations play in industrial technology development. Glocal knowledge is a journey of insight and discovery in the emerging global ‘knowledge village’. Perspectives from and about diﬀerent parts of the world and diverse human, socioeconomic, technological and cultural contexts are presented and interwoven to produce an emerging new worldview on how specialized knowledge that is embedded in a particular sociotechnical context can serve as the unit of reference for stocks and ﬂows of a hybrid, public/private, tacit/codiﬁed, tangible/virtual good that represents...
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