Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society
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Diversity in the Knowledge Economy and Society

Heterogeneity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Edited by Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen

The key message of this book is that heterogeneity should be seen as an intrinsic and indispensable element of knowledge systems. The authors address the concept of heterogeneity in a multi-disciplinary fashion, including perspectives from evolutionary economics and innovation system studies, and relate this approach to existing theories in a broad range of fields.
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Chapter 14: Conclusion

Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen


Elias G. Carayannis, Aris Kaloudis and Åge Mariussen This book explores issues of diversity and heterogeneity in national knowledge systems. In Figure 1.4 in the Introduction, we acknowledge the presence and interactions of input, process, and output factors in the knowledge society and economy manifested via co-existence, co-opetition, co-evolution, and co-specialization processes. We have further studied and discussed the ways and means in which diversity and heterogeneity influence how knowledge is created, diffused and used. Our discussion of knowledge systems is open-ended. We have attempted to provide an emerging conceptual framework to serve as the ‘intellectual sandbox’ and ‘creative whiteboard space’ of the mind’s eyes of ‘knowledge weavers’ (Wissensweber)1 across disciplines and sectors as they strive to tackle the 21st-century challenges and opportunities for socioeconomic prosperity and cultural renaissance based on knowledge and innovation. As a result of the glocalized nature and dynamics of state-of-the-art, specialized knowledge one needs to cope with and leverage two mutually reinforcing and complementary trends: a. Micro–macro. The symbiosis and co-evolution of top-down national and multi-national science, technology and innovation public policies, and bottom-up technology development and knowledge acquisition private initiatives; and Multi-level. The leveling of the competitive field across regions of the world via technology diffusion and adoption accompanied and complemented by the formation and exacerbation of multi-dimensional, multi-lateral, multi-modal and multi-nodal divides (cultural, technological, socioeconomic, and so on). b. NOTE 1. The term constitutes the brainchild or conceptual branding of the authors as part of this journey of...

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