Edited by Giacomo Becattini, Marco Bellandi and Lisa De Propis
SECTION 8: THE EXPERIENCES IN OTHER INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES
SECTION 8 The experiences in other industrialised countries Introduction Gabi Dei Ottati 1. IDs in various developed countries The chapters included in this section illustrate and reflect on the experiences of industrial districts (IDs) and, more in general, of patterns of local development in several industrialised countries. The section starts with a general overview on European countries, by Gioacchino Garofoli, followed by specific contributions on France by Georges Benko and Bernard Pecqueur, on Spain by Josep-Antoni Ybarra, on Scandinavia by Bengt Johannisson; and outside Europe on Japan by Yoshiyuki Okamoto, and on the US by Donald Patton and Martin Kenney. Specific contributions on Italy are collected in a separate section. These chapters differ from one another not merely because they refer to different national experiences, but also because they have somewhat different conceptual and interpretative frameworks. Although, the experiences described and the related policies that emerge from their reading are therefore multifaceted, there are important threads that link the different contributions and are worth stressing. As Garofoli argues in his contribution, the discovery of IDs in Italy during the 1970s and the revitalisation of the concept of the ID (Becattini 1979), together with the crisis of the Fordist model (Piore and Sabel 1984), opened up a new area of study concerning, on the one hand, a variety of models of capitalist development and, on the other hand, research on IDs in countries other than Italy. In this way it was found that the Italian type of districts (that is, with...
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