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Creative Cities, Cultural Clusters and Local Economic Development

Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti

This book analyses the economic development of cities from the ‘cultural economy’ and ‘creative industry’ perspectives, examining and differentiating them as two related but distinct segments of contemporary city economies. The authors argue that although they are normally conflated, the first is largely subsidized while the second is highly entrepreneurial hence they actually make very different kinds of contribution to a city’s character, attractiveness and competitiveness.
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Chapter 9: Knowledge Externalities and Networks of Cities in the Creative Metropolis

Joan Trullén and Rafael Boix


Joan Trullén and Rafael Boix 1. INTRODUCTION Cities and metropolitan areas are our main production and development driving force. They have long concentrated and co-ordinated the use of urbanized land, labour and capital. Urban land has been transformed, becoming independent from the forces of nature and filled with a network of infrastructures and artificial resources. Urban labour has been divided and organized, and has acquired specialized skills and the superior skills of continuous learning and creativity. Capital is also concentrated in cities and, as was eminently described by Marshall (1890 [1920]), mainly consists of knowledge and organization. Metropolitan areas produce, process, exchange and market the greater part of knowledge and creativity in the world. At the same time (and for this reason) they generate agglomeration economies and obtain spatially mobile network economies from their links with other cities. The combined ability to generate knowledge, creativity and external economies turns cities and metropolitan areas into the most powerful of productive artefacts, becoming a keystone for development and competitiveness. Metropolitan growth is the sum of the growth of the cities that form the metropolitan area. Why do some metropolitan cities grow faster than others? The hypothesis is that the differential growth of metropolitan cities is related to the existence of external economies within and between cities, many of which arise from knowledge and creativity. The objective of the study is to understand and model how the external economies affect intrametropolitan urban growth, with special attention to the e...

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