Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti
Chapter 11: Creative Clusters and Governance: The Dominance of the Hollywood Film Cluster
11. Creative clusters and governance: the dominance of the Hollywood ﬁlm cluster Lisa De Propris and Laura Hypponen There is a diﬀerence between the homo economicus and homo creativus. One makes the most of what nature permits him to have. The other rebels against nature’s dictate. (Mokyr, 1990) 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter looks at the tension between creativity, forms of art and business by looking at how ﬁlm making has been transformed in mass entertainment by Hollywood’s studios. Film-making is one of the main forms of art and is therefore considered to be a creative industry. This chapter brieﬂy explores the concept of creativity and what characterizes creative industries, with a special focus on the ﬁlm industry. As centripetal forces lead creative industries to concentrate in speciﬁc places, so the ﬁlm industry has witnessed the emergence of Hollywood as the most visible ﬁlm-making centre. The chapter explores whether the studio system that has emerged in the 1980s and 1990s through a process of vertical and horizontal integration is still capable of delivering creative outputs. The chapter looks at how concentrated governance and globalization have inﬂuenced Hollywood’s creativity. A similar study has looked at technology, clustering and governance in the music industry, which has been experiencing very similar patterns to the motion picture industry; see Lorenzen and Frederiksen (2005). The transformation of a creative activity into ‘show business’ and mass entertainment has, on the one hand, made cinema available to a wider audience than ever; but, on...
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