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Creative Cities, Cultural Clusters and Local Economic Development

Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti

This book analyses the economic development of cities from the ‘cultural economy’ and ‘creative industry’ perspectives, examining and differentiating them as two related but distinct segments of contemporary city economies. The authors argue that although they are normally conflated, the first is largely subsidized while the second is highly entrepreneurial hence they actually make very different kinds of contribution to a city’s character, attractiveness and competitiveness.
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Chapter 11: Creative Clusters and Governance: The Dominance of the Hollywood Film Cluster

Lisa De Propris and Laura Hypponen


11. Creative clusters and governance: the dominance of the Hollywood film cluster Lisa De Propris and Laura Hypponen There is a difference between the homo economicus and homo creativus. One makes the most of what nature permits him to have. The other rebels against nature’s dictate. (Mokyr, 1990) 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter looks at the tension between creativity, forms of art and business by looking at how film making has been transformed in mass entertainment by Hollywood’s studios. Film-making is one of the main forms of art and is therefore considered to be a creative industry. This chapter briefly explores the concept of creativity and what characterizes creative industries, with a special focus on the film industry. As centripetal forces lead creative industries to concentrate in specific places, so the film industry has witnessed the emergence of Hollywood as the most visible film-making centre. The chapter explores whether the studio system that has emerged in the 1980s and 1990s through a process of vertical and horizontal integration is still capable of delivering creative outputs. The chapter looks at how concentrated governance and globalization have influenced Hollywood’s creativity. A similar study has looked at technology, clustering and governance in the music industry, which has been experiencing very similar patterns to the motion picture industry; see Lorenzen and Frederiksen (2005). The transformation of a creative activity into ‘show business’ and mass entertainment has, on the one hand, made cinema available to a wider audience than ever; but, on...

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