- New Horizons in Regional Science series
Edited by Philip Cooke and Luciana Lazzeretti
12. The creative city: a matter of values1 Richard Smith and Katie Warﬁeld The men of experiment are like the ant; they only collect and use. But the bee . . . gathers its materials from the ﬂowers of the garden and of the ﬁeld, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. (Leonardo da Vinci) Creativity is a positively sanctioned type of deviance. (Jurgen Friedrichs) INTRODUCTION Generations of theorists have debated the deﬁnition of creativity. Originally the act of creation, and thus the product of creativity, was relegated to the capacities only of deities. Early artists and poets did not ‘create’, rather artistic practitioners ‘arranged’ objects and notions from things and ideas that already existed in the world – thanks to the exclusive ‘creative capacities’ of the god(s). To ‘make anew’ was a divine capacity. We live in a diﬀerent time, however, and creativity now denotes not so much the production of new worldly objects, but simply an innovative action. Creativity describes both process and product, and as such virtually anyone (or, for that matter, any ‘thing’) can now be ‘creative’. Not only can the artist, the poet, the architect be ‘creative’ – innovate, imagine, ingenerate or invent – but so too can inanimate objects: creative places, creative economies, creative politics and creative governance. The foundational qualities of ‘creativity’ have not evolved over time, but, as mentioned, the creative subjects, and thus the purposes to which creativity is put to task, have changed. Therefore, exploring the notion of...
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