A Cost–Benefit Approach
Chapter 17: Agricultural Policy and HIV Interventions
In this chapter we continue the theme began in the last chapter that nonmedical, and even non-sexual interventions, which involve influencing agricultural household’s behavior, can be effective and worthwhile HIV policies. Pisani (2008) makes the claim that HIV/AIDS cannot be mainly a developmental issue because it is the more developed countries in SSA that have high HIV prevalence rates and not the less developed countries. We have already addressed this issue in Chapter 13 where we argued that both low and high income can lead to high infection rates. Here we will explain some agricultural interventions that have had an impact, though not all favorable to the aim of reducing HIV rates. The fact that some agricultural policies lead to trade-offs is another important reason why CBA is necessary for setting HIV priorities as one needs to measure costs as well as benefits. We close by drawing together material from this and the previous chapters that reinforce the argument that HIV in SSA is mainly a hunger and economic development issue. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES CAN LOWER HIV/AIDS Loevinsohn and Gillespie (2003) cover in detail a large body of work examining the link between HIV and agriculture. Here are some of their main findings: ● ● ● In Malawi, opening times of rural markets were said to favor sexual relations more than commercial ones. Tanzania changed opening and closing times of rural markets to make the trade in sex more difficult, that is, having the markets early and in daylight so that people would have...
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