A Cost–Benefit Approach
Chapter 21: Introduction to Part III
From the analysis covered in Part II we have the requisite background to appreciate the range of considerations that determine the transmission of the HIV/AIDS disease and an understanding of some of the factors that influence the effectiveness of interventions to impact the transmission process. Now is the time to go into detail about how CBA has been used to evaluate the interventions. In this chapter we look at some of the evidence of the effectiveness of possible interventions and explain why effectiveness needs to be put into a broader evaluation framework in order to be useful for setting priorities. Then we give a guide to the rest of Part III. In subsequent chapters we go through the basic principles of CBA and show how these principles can be, and have been, applied. In outlining the main evaluation theories and practice of CBA as they relate to HIV we will just focus on a few main points. All the details can be found by consulting the actual studies themselves. ESTIMATES OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS HIV/AIDS INTERVENTIONS In Table 21.1 we present a summary of 151 studies given by Bollinger (2008) related to the average effectiveness of the kinds of HIV preventative interventions planned by the World Bank and UNAIDS. There are four behavioral outcomes monitored for 12 different interventions. The behavioral outcomes are the use of condoms, treatment for STIs, the number of sexual partners and the age of first sex. All outcomes except age of first sex are...
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