A Role in Corporate Responsibility, Conflict Prevention and Peace
Edited by Gabriele G.S. Suder
Chapter 9: The Sustainable Peace Roles of International Extractive Industries
Duane Windsor 9.1 INTRODUCTION Conﬂict and violence, both intra-state and inter-state, are globally widespread conditions in which businesses, both domestic and foreign, must frequently operate. These conditions are most pronounced in some developing countries in which international extractive industries are especially prominent activities. The broad rubric of conﬂict and violence includes violent crime (for example, kidnappings of foreign oil workers in the Niger Delta of Nigeria), inter-group conﬂicts (for example, the Tutsi and the Hutu in the Rwanda genocide of 1994 or the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia), civil wars and insurgencies (for example, the current situations in Iraq, Somalia and Sudan) and cross-border wars (for example, the continuing conﬂict between Ethiopia and Eritrea and the persistent risk of war between India and Pakistan). In the post-09/11 era, terrorism of several varieties is a rising phenomenon. Sometimes, businesses are targets of violence or threats of violence (for example, the Chiquita scandal in Colombia, which is described below, and foreign oil companies in Nigeria). Sometimes, businesses may be, however inadvertently, causes or promoters of conﬂict and violence (for example, allegations made against Rio Tinto on Bougainville Island).1 The issue addressed in this volume is the potential role of businesses in respecting human rights and encouraging sustainable peace and conﬂict prevention both through direct business activities and indirectly through the often positive relationship between business proﬁt and community beneﬁt. International businesses especially may be able to operate as change agents promoting peace and...
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