Implications for the United States
Edited by Harry W. Richardson and Chang-Hee Christine Bae
Chapter 3: Road Pricing in Britain and its Relevance to the United States: Finding from Two Scenarios of National Road Charging in Great Britain and Some Reflections on Governance
3. Road pricing in Britain and its relevance to the United States: ﬁndings from two scenarios of national road charging in Great Britain and some reﬂections on governance Terence Bendixson 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter considers some implications of introducing variable, distance-based road charging in Great Britain. It looks at two pricing regimes involving diﬀerent ways of spending the revenues. And, after noting that road charging could be used to suppress travel by car or provide additional transport capacity, it considers some of the implications of pay-as-you-go driving for governance. The starting-point for this thinking is two reports produced by the Independent Transport Commission (ITC), a think-tank linked to the University of Southampton. Both reports were based on econometric modelling by Professor Stephen Glaister and Dr Daniel Graham of Imperial College London. The ﬁrst (2003)1 concluded that: ● ● The pricing of road travel in Britain is a muddle. What many people pay bears no relation to the real costs of their journeys. Given the practical limitations to road building, the country faces a choice between worsening congestion and road-use charging. Delay over the introduction of charging will make things worse. Glaister, in his technical report, observed that under current rates of fuel duty, city areas and major inter-city routes tended to be undercharged while country areas were signiﬁcantly overcharged. 39 40 UK applications The focus of the ITC’s second (2006) report 2 was: ● ● ● ● ● ● The likely state of traﬃc speeds and ﬂows in 2010, assuming that national road...
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