Implications for the United States
Edited by Harry W. Richardson and Chang-Hee Christine Bae
Chapter 5: Cambridge Futures: Forecating the Effect of Congestion Charging on Land Use and Transport
5. Cambridge Futures: forecasting the eﬀect of congestion charging on land use and transport Anthony J. Hargreaves and Marcial Echenique 1 BACKGROUND Cambridge Futures is a non-proﬁt-making group of local business leaders, politicians, local government oﬃcers, professionals and academics who have been looking at the options for growth in and around Cambridge in the United Kingdom. Cambridge Futures was founded in 1996 to inform the debate on whether and how Cambridge should be allowed to grow. At that time, Cambridge still had planning policies in place (Holford and Wright, 1950), which introduced a ‘green belt’ urban growth boundary that constrained the size of this historic and attractive city, to a population of around 100,000. The Mott Report (1969) resulted in a slight relaxation of planning policy by allowing the development of a science park on the northern edge of the city. This was enormously successful, largely due to the growth of hitech companies spinning oﬀ from the research of the world-renowned Cambridge University. This began a rapid growth in employment (Segal, Quince and Wicksteed, 1985), which has led to steep increases in house prices, and increasing amounts of commuting as more and more workers need to ﬁnd housing beyond the green belt. The ﬁrst Cambridge Futures study tested several options for the future physical form of the Cambridge area (Echenique, 1999). The most notable outcomes of the study were the public recognition that the city needed to be allowed to grow, and that there was less...
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