Road Congestion Pricing in Europe
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Road Congestion Pricing in Europe

Implications for the United States

Edited by Harry W. Richardson and Chang-Hee Christine Bae

In February 2003, the London Congestion Charging Scheme was introduced and in 2006 a similar policy was introduced in Stockholm. In both cases automobile traffic entering the cordon declined by about 20 percent. This book evaluates these and other similar programs exploring their implications for the United States. This study’s value lies in the fact that it examines road pricing in the real world and not simply from a theoretical viewpoint. As a comparative study it will appeal to both policymakers and academics in transportation economics and planning, urban economics, planning and economic geography.
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Chapter 5: Cambridge Futures: Forecating the Effect of Congestion Charging on Land Use and Transport

Anthony J. Hargreaves and Marcial Echenique


5. Cambridge Futures: forecasting the effect of congestion charging on land use and transport Anthony J. Hargreaves and Marcial Echenique 1 BACKGROUND Cambridge Futures is a non-profit-making group of local business leaders, politicians, local government officers, professionals and academics who have been looking at the options for growth in and around Cambridge in the United Kingdom. Cambridge Futures was founded in 1996 to inform the debate on whether and how Cambridge should be allowed to grow. At that time, Cambridge still had planning policies in place (Holford and Wright, 1950), which introduced a ‘green belt’ urban growth boundary that constrained the size of this historic and attractive city, to a population of around 100,000. The Mott Report (1969) resulted in a slight relaxation of planning policy by allowing the development of a science park on the northern edge of the city. This was enormously successful, largely due to the growth of hitech companies spinning off from the research of the world-renowned Cambridge University. This began a rapid growth in employment (Segal, Quince and Wicksteed, 1985), which has led to steep increases in house prices, and increasing amounts of commuting as more and more workers need to find housing beyond the green belt. The first Cambridge Futures study tested several options for the future physical form of the Cambridge area (Echenique, 1999). The most notable outcomes of the study were the public recognition that the city needed to be allowed to grow, and that there was less...

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