Implications for the United States
Edited by Harry W. Richardson and Chang-Hee Christine Bae
Chapter 14: The European and Asian Experience of Implementing Congestion Charging: Its Applicability to the United States
Tom Rye and Stephen Ison
Tom Rye and Stephen Ison* 1 PURPOSE AND STRUCTURE OF CHAPTER The main purpose of this chapter is to consider the lessons that the experiences of implementing congestion charging in Europe and Asia can tell us about its ‘implementability’ in US cities. This means the relative ease with which it can be implemented, which is a product of several factors, including: ● ● ● ● the political and legislative context in a given urban area; local factors, such as the degree of congestion experienced in the area; scheme design; and the nature of the people and organisations that are responsible for funding and implementing a scheme. It is useful to consider such factors that combine to make implementation more or less likely in the form of a conceptual framework for policy implementation. Several authors in various ﬁelds have previously developed such frameworks. Section 2 begins by reviewing this literature and, from that review, developing a conceptual framework more speciﬁc to transport policy implementation. Section 3 then looks at the experience of certain European and Asian cities in trying to implement congestion charging. Use of the conceptual framework for analysis will allow us to draw conclusions about the way in which factors must combine in order for implementation to have the greatest chance of success. Section 4 then turns to the USA and considers its context for charging and the experience there of charging to date. In the light of the conceptual 273 274 International examples framework, in Section 5, conclusions are then drawn...
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