Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship
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Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship

Global Experience in Policy and Program Development

Edited by Sarfraz A. Mian

Providing a global survey of public policies and programs for building national and regional ecosystems of science and technology based entrepreneurial development, this book offers a unique analysis of the advances, over the last several decades and in light of the experiential knowledge gained in various parts of the world, in the understanding of innovation systems in the pursuit of developing these economies. Presenting nineteen case studies of diverse developed and emerging economy nations and their regions, more than thirty expert authors describe an array of policy and program mechanisms that have been implemented over the years.
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Chapter 9: Emergence of the Swedish Innovation System and the Support for Regional Entrepreneurship: A Socioeconomic Perspective

Carl-Otto Frykfors and Magnus Klofsten


Carl-Otto Frykfors and Magnus Klofsten INTRODUCTION A basic understanding of the structure and the development of the Swedish innovation system requires a study of the importance of ‘la longue durée’ and of innovative technology procurement by ‘development pairs’ (cooperation between government agencies and private companies) as tools for innovation policy and growth (Edquist et al., 2000; Fridlund, 1999; Laestadius and Berggren, 2000; Rolfstam, 2005). Some 20 or so of Sweden’s leading global companies play a distinctive role in the Swedish innovation system, not least accounting for a major share of national R&D. Corporate R&D in Sweden represents close to 2.5 per cent of GNP, compared with 0.94 per cent of GNP as the average in the EU-27 and 1.68 per cent of GNP in the USA in 2005. The corresponding public investments in R&D are 0.88 per cent of GNP for Sweden compared with 0.60 per cent of GNP as the average in the EU-27 and 0.79 per cent of GNP for the USA in 2005 (OECD, 2009). The importance of these companies for the Swedish economy has affected the policy focus that downplays promotion of entrepreneurship and the starting of new companies in catalysing innovation. Furthermore, research resources from the government are typically channelled to universities rather than to the Swedish form of joint public–private research institutes. And, generally, the role of research institutes is less prominent in the innovation system of Sweden than in that of many other countries, so the challenges for...

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