Edited by Albert Breton, Giorgio Brosio, Silvana Dalmazzone and Giovanna Garrone
Chapter 9: Russia: The Difficult Transition to Stable Environmental Institutions
9. Russia: The diﬃcult transition to stable environmental institutions Pavel V. Kasyanov and Aliona V. Stovpivskaya 1. INTRODUCTION The current practice of environmental protection management in Russia can be seen against the background of two main factors. One is the immense size of the country with its diverse natural conditions along with its distinctive cultural, socio-economic and civilization-speciﬁc features. The second relates to the overall system of governance in the country, which suﬀers from instability and institutional failure in particular with regard to environmental protection and natural resource management in the so-called ‘transition’ period. It follows therefore that analysis of any administrative/governance system and prescription of measures to achieve or introduce good governance practice cannot be de-linked from the historical, cultural and other civilization-speciﬁc aspects of the country in question. If the countries are quite diﬀerent, borrowing certain models and practices may produce quite unexpected and even undesirable results. It means that we should have a broader vision of the problem in dealing even with seemingly very practical issues of modern administrative or governance standards (Kasyanov 1998; Kasyanov 2000; Lukianchikov and Potravnyi 2000). 1.1 Natural Resources Proﬁle Russia is the world’s largest country, with an area of over 17 million km2, of which 47 per cent is covered by forests (Petrov et al. 1997), 8 per cent is arable or permanent crop land, 5 per cent is grassland, and 40 per cent has other cover. Russia is richly endowed with mineral resources. It is...
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